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The Mechanical Universe and Beyond (Size: 1.86 GB)
PART II Beyond the Mechanical Universe
27: Beyond the Mechanical Universe
The world of electricity and magnetism, and 20th-century discoveries of relativity and quantum mechanics.
28: Static Electricity
Eighteenth-century electricians knew how to spark the interest of an audience with the principles of static electricity.
29:The Electric Field
Faraday's vision of lines of constant force in space laid the foundation for the modern force field theory.
30: Potential and Capacitance
Franklin proposes a successful theory of the Leyden jar and invents the parallel plate capacitor.
31: Voltage, Energy, and Force
When is electricity dangerous or benign, spectacular or useful?
32: The Electric Battery
Volta invents the electric battery using the internal properties of different metals.
33: Electric Circuits
The work of Wheatstone, Ohm, and Kirchhoff leads to the design and analysis of how current flows.
Gilbert discovered that the earth behaves like a giant magnet. Modern scientists have learned even more.
35: The Magnetic Field
The law of Biot and Sarvart, the force between electric currents, and Ampere's law.
36: Vector Fields and Hydrodynamics
Force fields have definite properties of their own suitable for scientific study.
37: Electromagnetic Induction
The discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831 creates an important technological breakthrough in the generation of electric power.
38: Alternating Current
Electromagnetic induction makes it easy to generate alternating current while transformers make it practical to distribute it over long distances.
39: Maxwell's Equations
Maxwell discovers that displacement current produces electromagnetic waves or light.
Many properties of light are properties of waves, including reflection, refraction, and diffraction.
41: The Michelson-Morley Experiment
In 1887, an exquisitely designed measurement of the earth's motion through the aether results in the most brilliant failure in scientific history.
42: The Lorentz Transformation
If the speed of light is to be the same for all observers, then the length of a meter stick, or the rate of a ticking clock, depends on who measures it.
43: Velocity and Time
Einstein is motivated to perfect the central ideas of physics, resulting in a new understanding of the meaning of space and time.
44: Mass, Momentum, Energy
The new meaning of space and time make it necessary to formulate a new mechanics, therefore E = mc squared.
45: Temperature and Gas Laws
Hot discoveries about the behavior of gases make the connection between temperature and heat.
46: Engine of Nature
The Carnot engine, part one, beginning with simple steam engines.
The Carnot engine, part two, with profound implications for the behavior of matter and the flow of time through the universe.
48: Low Temperatures
With the quest for low temperatures came the discovery that all elements can exist in each of the basic states of matter.
49: The Atom
A history of the atom, from the ancient Greeks to the early 20th century, and a new challenge for the world of physics.
50: Particles and Waves
Evidence that light can sometimes act like a particle leads to quantum mechanics, the new physics.
51: From Atoms to Quarks
Electron waves attracted to the nucleus of an atom help account for the periodic table of the elements and ultimately lead to the search for quarks.
52: The Quantum Mechanical Universe
A last look at where we've been and a peek into the future.